The Operations Division is responsible for operating and maintaining all of HRSD's treatment plants, pumps stations, pipelines, buildings and equipment. In addition, the division oversees the development of new technology with a focus on rapid deployment of innovative solutions. The division achieves its mission through the efforts of the following divisions:

Electrical and Energy Management supports the electric and instrumentation maintenance and construction needs of all HRSD facilities. The department is also responsible for HRSD's energy management and innovation programs.

Interceptor Systems is responsible for planning, operating and maintaining over 500 miles of pipelines and more than 80 pump stations in Hampton Roads that convey wastewater from the locality owned and operated collection systems to an HRSD treatment plant. Interceptor Systems are divided into two departments—North Shore and South Shore.

HRSD's nine major treatment plants have treatment capacities that range from 15 to 54 million gallons per day. Each plant is unique in design but run as part of an overall system and staffed to ensure effective treatment 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The plants are responsible for monitoring complex physical, biological and chemical treatment processes; maintenance; discharge permit compliance; solids utilization; and creative and rapid response to problems that may occur. The nine treatment plants are grouped into three divisions, each guided by a Senior Manager.

The Small Communities Department operates and maintains four smaller treatment plants and the associated collection systems for four counties on the Middle Peninsula. The staff ensures responsive, reliable customer service to an area of approximately 800 square miles with about 1,000 accounts.

Support Systems is responsible for the maintenance of HRSD vehicles, all buildings and the operation of two carpentry shops as well as a full-service machine shop.

The Water Technology and Research Department provides support (development, testing, evaluation, piloting, planning and implementation) for new initiatives to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of HRSD treatment operations.  This department coordinates HRSD research and development efforts with national professional organizations, environmental organizations, other wastewater agencies and industry partners, as well as local and national universities.